Tuesday, August 25, 2009

Jehangir’s Reign [1605-1628]

Akbar was succeeded by his son, Salim, who took the title of Jehangir, meaning "Conqueror of the World". He expanded the empire through the addition of Kangra and Kistwar and consolidated the Mughal rule in Bengal. Although many rebellions arose in the empire, especially in Bengal and Mewar, Jehangir was able to suppress them all. Jehangir was renowned for administering impartial justice to his people, irrespective of their religious faith. Around this time, European traders had started coming to India. The English were able to find favor with Jehangir and cultivated him through works of art, of which Jehangir was a connoisseur. The first ambassador to the Mughal court was Sir Thomas Roe. He was able to secure many trading facilities for his countrymen.

The Mughal rule reached its climax during Jehangir's reign. In the history of Mughal architecture, Jehangir's reign marks the period of transition between its two grand phases, namely the phase of Akbar and that of his grandson, Shah Jehan. The most important feature of this period is the substitution of red sandstone with white marble. Jehangir had a deep love of color. The system of pietra dura, i.e. the inlaid mosaic work of precious stones of various shades, gained popularity towards the end of his reign. He was also fond of laying gardens. One of the most famous gardens laid by him was the Shalimar Bagh in Lahore. The Mughal style of art was greatly developed during his reign. The most important feature of the paintings of this era was the decline of the Persian and enhancement of the Indian cultural influence.

Mughal paintings lost much of their glamour and refinement after Jehangir's death in 1627. During the late 17th and 18th centuries this art migrated to regional centers such as in Rajput and Jaipur, where it prospered under the influence of the local culture.

Monday, August 24, 2009

British Arrive in India

In 1583, Queen Elizabeth I dispatched the ship Tyger to the Sub-continent to exploit opportunities for trade. Sixteen years after the Tyger sailed to India, Queen Elizabeth granted trading rights to a group of London entrepreneurs. In 1614, the British East India Company opened its first office in Bombay. The British continued to seek concessions from the Mughal rulers and enjoyed a unique trading monopoly. By the middle of the 18th century, the British, in guise of the East India Company, had become deeply enmeshed in the politics of India. The British and French had both obtained permission to open factories and forts in India. It was in the guise of defense for their forts that they were able to establish large forces in India. In the middle of the 18th century the war between France and Britain was extended to the Sub-continent in order to establish control over India. The British succeeded in their mission as they took advantage of the constant bickering of the local rulers and the lack of consolidated power.

In violation of a trade agreement with the Nawab of Bengal, the British started reinforcing Fort William in Calcutta. This led to a clash between the British and the son of the Nawab of Bengal, Sirajuddullah, who opposed the British violation and reinforcement of Fort William. Owing to the treachery of his uncle Mir Jaffar, Nawab Sirajuddullah was defeated in the battle of Plassey in 1757. After the battle of Plassey, the British began the systematic conquest of the Sub-continent. It was mainly the Muslims who raised resistance to the British rule. The other organized group, the Marhattas, periodically sided with the British against the Muslims. The people of India were not united against the foreign aggressors, which made it easier for the British to seize power. The Marhattas, threatened by the British challenged them under the leadership of their Peshwas. This resulted in a series of Anglo-Marhatta wars, which finally resulted in bringing the Marhatta confederacy under the British rule. Some Muslim rulers like Haider Ali and his son Tipu Sultan single-handedly tried to free India from the British yoke, but were defeated. After minimizing the major threats, the British systematically expanded their control and by 1823 had become masters of two-thirds of India. They were proudly able to claim: "The sun never sets on the British Empire"

Mujaddid Alf Sani''s Movement [1564-1624]

In the 16th century, during the reign of Akbar, Islam faced overwhelming threats. The Infallibility Decree in 1579 and Din-i-Ilahi in 1581 were considered to be grave threats to the religion. The Din-i-Ilahi, as propounded by Akbar, was a mixture of various religions. The new religion combined mysticism, philosophy and nature worship. It recognized no gods or prophets and the emperor was its chief exponent. To believe in revelation was considered as "taqlid" (following authority blindly) or a low kind of morality, fit only for the uneducated and the illiterate. Akbar's Din-i-Ilahi had literally made the orthodox Muslims outcasts in the affairs of the state. Akbar was actually influenced by the Bhakti Movement that had started during the Sultanate period. This philosophy propounded Hindu-Muslim unity. Many sufis, including Qazi Mulla Muhammad of Jaunpur and Qazi Mir Yaqoob of Bengal, condemned his religious innovations. However, the man who took it upon himself to revive Islam was Sheikh Ahmad of Sarhind, commonly known as Mujaddid Alf Sani, or "the reformer of the second millennium". Sheikh Ahmad was born in Sarhind on June 26, 1564. He joined the Naqshbandiya Silsilah under the discipleship of Khawaja Baqi Billah. He dedicated his sincerity of purpose to purify Islam and to rid it of the accretions of Hindu Pantheism as well as the philosophy of Wahdat-ul Wujud. He gave the philosophy of Wahdat-ush-Shuhud. Mujaddid Alf Sani wrote Ittiba-al-Nubuwwah. In this pamphlet, he quoted Imam Ghazali justifying the need for prophet-hood and explaining the inadequacies of human intellect. Through verbal preaching, discussions and his maktubat (letters) addressed to important nobles and leaders of religious thought, he spread his message amongst the elite in particular. He boldly opposed all plans to bring Islam and Hinduism together on the religious level, knowing that it would loosen the Muslim grip on the sources of imperial strength. Because of these letters, and general atmosphere in the country, he contributed to the swing from Akbar's heterodoxy to Aurangzeb's vigorous orthodoxy instead of a return to Babur and Humayun's policy of laissez faire. Iqbal rightly regarded him as the "Spiritual Guardian of the Muslims" of the Sub-continent and one whom God had alerted to the great perils inherent in the syncretism of Akbar.

Akbar’s Reign [1556-1605]

Humayun's heir, Akbar, was born in exile and was only 13 years old when his father died. Thanks to his exceptionally capable guardian, Bahram Khan, he survived to demonstrate his worth. Akbar's reign holds a certain prominence in history; he was the ruler who actually fortified the foundations of the Mughal Empire. After a series of conquests he managed to subdue most of India. Areas not under the empire were designated as tributaries. He also adopted a conciliatory policy towards the Rajputs, hence reducing any threat from them. Akbar was not only a great conqueror, but a capable organizer and a great administrator as well. He set up a host of institutions that proved to be the foundation of an administrative system that operated even in British India. Akbar's rule also stands out due to his liberal policies towards the non-Muslims, his religious innovations, the land revenue system and his famous Mansabdari system. Akbar's Mansabdari system became the basis of Mughal military organization and civil administration.

The reign of Akbar was a period of renaissance of Persian literature. The Ain-i-Akbari gives the names of 59 great Persian poets of Akbar's court. History was the most important branch of Persian prose literature. Abul Fazl's Akbarnama and Ain-i-Akbari were complementary works. Akbar and his successors, Jehangir and Shah Jehan greatly contributed to the development of Indian music. Tansen was the most accomplished musician of the age. Ain-i-Akbari gives the names of 36 first-rate musicians of Akbar's court where Hindu and Muslim style of music mingled freely.

architectural style began as a definite movement under his rule. Akbar's most ambitious and magnificent architectural undertaking was the new capital city that he built on the ridge at Sikri near Agra. The city was named as Fatehpur to commemorate Akbar's conquest of Gujrat in 1572. The most impressive creation of this new capital is the grand Jamia Masjid. The southern entrance to the Jamia Masjid is an impressive gateway known as Buland Darwaza. Like most other buildings at Fatehpur Sikri, the fabric of this impressive gateway is of red sandstone that is decorated by carvings and discreet inlaying of white marble. Of all the Mughals, Akbar's reign was the most peaceful and powerful. With his death in 1605, ended a glorious epoch in Indian history.

Suri Dynasty [1540-55]

Sher Khan, known as Sher Shah Suri, was an Afghan leader who took over the Mughal Empire after defeating Humayun in 1540. Sher Shah occupied the throne of Delhi for not more than five years, but his reign proved to be a landmark in the Sub-continent. He formulated a sound imperial administration that was inspired by the Safavid regime in Iran. Sher Shah employed a powerful army, which is said to have comprised of 150,000 horses, 250,000 foot-soldiers and 5,000 elephants. He personally inspected, appointed and paid the soldiers, thus making him the focus of loyalty and subduing the jealousies between clans and tribes. To prevent fraud, he revived the tradition of branding horses, introduced first by Alauddin Khalji.

The principal reforms for which Sher Shah is remembered are those connected with revenue administration. He set up a revenue collection system based on the measurement of land. Justice was provided to the common man. Numerous civil works were carried out during his short reign; planting of trees, wells and building of Sarai (inns) for travelers was done. Roads were laid; it was under his rule that the Grand Trunk road from Delhi to Kabul was built. The currency was also changed to finely minted silver coins called Dam.

During his lifetime, Sher Shah commissioned the construction of tombs for his father, Hasan Khan Suri and for himself. A third one was begun for his son Islam, but remained unfinished due to the dynasty's fall. Sher Shah died in 1545 by a gunpowder explosion and left his kingdom to his two sons and grandsons. Unfortunately, his successors were incompetent and succumbed to old Afghan rivalries. This resulted in the downfall of the Suri Dynasty.

Evolution of Indian road network. The main map...Image via Wikipedia

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Humayun’s Rule [1530-40, 1555-6]

Babur was succeeded by his eldest son Humayun. Humayun failed in asserting a strong monarchical authority. He inherited a freshly won empire with a host of troubles; the Afghan nobles, the Rajputs and worst of all, his three treacherous brothers. They caused numerous problems for him. Following his father's advice, Humayun treated his brothers kindly and appointed them to high positions. Kamran was appointed as the Governor of Kabul, Kandhar and later even Punjab. Askari was the Governor of Sambhal, and Hindal the Governor of Alwar. In return, his brothers hindered him at every step and betrayed him in his hour of need. All of them coveted the throne. This was a curse that each successful Mughal king had to deal with. Humayun almost lost the empire his father had fought so hard to bequeath him. In the first ten years of his rule, he faced so many challenges not only from his younger brothers but also from the Afghan General Sher Shah Suri who had served under Babur. Sher Shah Suri defeated Humayun in the battles of Chausa and Kanauj in 1540. This defeat was the first setback to the infant Mughal Empire. He lived the next 15 years of his life, from 1540 to 1555, self-exiled in Persia. Later on, with the help of the King of Persia, he captured Kabul and Kandhar. He was finally able to re-ascend the throne at Delhi and Agra after defeating Sikandar Suri. After recovering his throne, Humayun devoted himself to the affairs of the kingdom and towards improving the system of government. He laid the foundation of the Mughal style of painting. Later on, during the reign of Akbar, a fusion of Persian and Indian style of painting took place.

Unfortunately, after recovering his empire, Humayun was not destined to rule for long. In January 1556, he met his tragic end by slipping from the famous building known as Din Panah. After him his eldest son Akbar took over the rule of the empire.

Babur - The First Mughal Emperor [1526-30]

Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur founded the Mughal Empire in India after defeating Ibrahim Lodhi in the Battle of Panipat in 1526.

At the age of 14, Babur ascended the throne of the Central Asian kingdom of Farghana. His greatest ambition was to rule Samarkand. He fought many battles in the pursuit of this goal, winning and losing his kingdom many times in the process. In 1504, he ventured into what is now Afghanistan and conquered Kabul.

His position in Central Asia was precarious at best. In order to consolidate his rule, he invaded India five times, crossing the River Indus each time. The fifth expedition resulted in his encounter with Ibrahim Lodhi in the first battle of Panipat in April 1526. Babur's army was better equipped than Lodhi's; he had guns while the sultan relied on elephants. The most successful of Babur's innovations was the introduction of gunpowder, which had never been used before in the Sub-continent. This combined with Babur's newer tactics gave him a greater advantage. Babur's strategy won the war and Ibrahim Lodhi died fighting.

Panipat was merely the beginning of the Mughal rule. Akbar laid its real foundation in 1556. At the time of the battle of Panipat, the political power in India was shared by the Afghans and the Rajputs. After Panipat, the Hindu princes united under Rana Sanga, the Raja of Mewar, resulting in a sizable force. Babur's army showed signs of panic at the size of the huge opposing army. To prevent his forces retreat, Babur tried to instill confidence in his soldiers by breaking all his drinking cups and vessels, and vowed never to drink again if he won. His soldiers took heart, and when the armies met in the battle at Kanwaha, near Agra on March 16, 1527, Babur was able to win decisively. Kanwaha confirmed and completed Babur's victory at Panipat. Babur thus became the king of Central India.


Beauty of Paksitan

Water Shortage in Pakistan

Quoting from a World Bank's 2005's study, the Center for Research & Security Studies has identified the coming crisis of water in Pakistan. This report, which is titled Pakistan Will Cry for Water, describes how Pakistan is changing from 'water scarce' country to 'waster stressed' country.

This report goes on to describe that lack of a comprehensive water strategy, public's insensitivity and wastage of water and out of control population are some of the reasons that clean drinking water, or water in general is on the decline in Pakistan.

Obviously, Pakistan is not the only country that is faced with this shortage. But, the fact that Pakistan is more water stressed than Ethiopia according to the same report is alarming. In fact, not only is the World Bank worried about this crisis, but the UN is also concerned about this problem in Pakistan. The report states the concern as below:

In addition to the World Bank report, the UN's World Water Development Report states that the "total actual renewable water resources in Pakistan decreased from 2,961 cubic meters per capita in 2000 to 1,420 cubic meters in 2005." That indeed is a 50 percent drop in actual renewable water resources over a mere 5-year period-and an additional 50 percent drop is bound to strangle Pakistan's water-based economic activities by year 2015.

Another good read about this frightening prospect is a piece by Farrukh Sohail Goindi titled Water Crisis in Pakistan which details everything wrong that the country has done to waster and destroy water resources in the country.

This surely is very worrisome to everyone who wants Pakistan to succeed. What this shortage means is that even if Pakistan successfully defeats the Taliban, manages to lower the inflation, controls population explosion, and the country becomes stable politically, socially, and culturally, this water shortage would destroy all other gains in every other field. Yet, I don't see anyone in the country hitting the panic button to educate the population to conserve water. I also don't see any effort by the government, or by the opposition to develop a practical response to tackle the worsening water shortage in the country. Currently, everyone is focused on power shortage, which in itself is a serious challenge. And the country has to prepare itself for responding to all the challenges, i.e. water shortage, electricity shortage, lack of economic opportunities for youngsters, the Taliban threat, out of control population etc without wasting even a single moment. But as for as water shortage goes, CSS Forum has posted a detailed plan on its website and it would be wise for Islamabad to at least look at it. It is titled Water Crisis in Pakistan and its remedies.

Hopefully, someone, anyone concerned with Pakistan's future and for the millions of people living in the country would read it!

Quran talavat and translation

I Find web site this is really great work on it, You can also read Quran and listen with Translation.
In Ramadan this is great opportunity


Sunday, August 16, 2009

Cambridge university now open Scholarship for undergraduate student in Pakistan

Cambridge university now open Scholarship for  undergraduate student. This is good sign for Pakistan that international scholarship has been open for Pakistani student again.
Under the University of Cambridge 800th Anniversary Scholarship Programme, the University has introduced a new scholarship scheme for applicants for undergraduate admission from Pakistan for 2010 entry onwards. The details are as follows:


The scholarships are for school-leavers from Pakistan who meet the usual examination qualifications for admission to Cambridge. Applicants for all courses except Medicine and Veterinary Medicine are eligible to apply.


The scholarships are not available if a student already has a degree and is therefore applying to Cambridge as an affiliated applicant.


The scholarships will cover the cost of tuition fees and College fees together with a grant towards maintenance and travel costs for each year of the course. The maintenance element of the scholarship will take account of the students' financial circumstances.


The scholarships are competitive and conditional on a College offer of a place to study at Cambridge, including meeting any immigration and English language requirements. Continuation of the scholarship from year to year will be conditional on satisfactory examination performance.


All students who meet the conditions above and wish to be considered for an 800th Anniversary Scholarship should complete a scholarship application form and apply for a place at Cambridge in the usual way, submitting a UCAS application and a Cambridge Overseas Application Form (COAF) together with the scholarship application form by 20 September 2009. Applicants for the scholarships will be interviewed in Pakistan in October/November 2009.

please also forward this as more as possible.

For more information, please log on to www.cam.ac.uk/admissions/undergraduate/international

Friday, August 7, 2009

HSSC Part-I Result will be announced today, 8th August, 2009

Federal Board First year Result will be announced  today, 8th August, 2009. ALL HSSC Part-I student will congratulate and hope for their success. Best OF Luck :)

Result will also be available on SMS and on Telephone.

FOR SMS i.e Rs.5+tax Per SMS
Simply send a text message to 5050 with your roll number to see result:
FB <space> <Roll Number>

For Example:
FB 300001

FOR TELEPHONE i.e Rs.5+tax Per Minute
Simply dial 090011777 and follow the directions

Wednesday, August 5, 2009

Jin bachoon ko school books chahiyen (FREE)

Jin bachoon ko school books chahiyen (FREE) aur jo school ki fee pay na kar saktey hon wo in numbers pay contact karen
Plz forward zaroor karain. Aapki e-mail kisi bahey ki zindagi bana sakti hai. Plz do forward syahd kisi ki madad ho jaye.

plz send this link to other may bee this help some one needy person